CROI 2008: Boosted Atazanavir (Reyataz) and Lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) Have Similar Efficacy, but Different Side Effects: CASTLE

As antiretroviral therapy had improved, there are now multiple drug regimens that can produce full HIV suppression. However other factors -- including immediate side effects, long-term toxicities, and convenience -- may vary considerably. At the 15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections this week in Boston, researchers reported data from the CASTLE trial, which compared 2 of the most widely used protease inhibitors, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (Reyataz) and lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra), in treatment-naive participants. 

CROI 2008: Abacavir/3TC (Epzicom) Matches Tenofovir/Emtricitabine (Truvada) for Treatment-naive Patients: HEAT Study

While there is always much interest in new antiretroviral drug classes, research continues as well on the earliest type of anti-HIV therapy, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). At the 15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2008) this week in Boston, researchers presented data from the HEAT (Head-to-head Epzicom And Truvada) trial, a direct comparison of 2 double-NRTI backbones.

Monoclonal Antibody CCR5 Inhibitor PRO 140 Produces Long-lasting HIV Suppression in Single-dose Study

In order to enter human CD4 T-cells, HIV must bind to both the CD4 receptor on the cell surface and 1 of 2 co-receptors, CCR5 or CXCR4. If the virus cannot attach to a co-receptor, it cannot infect new cells. The first oral CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc (Selzentry) was recently approved, and another such agent, vicriviroc, has shown promising results in clinical trials.

Swiss Experts Claim HIV Patients with Undetectable Viral Load Who Adhere to Treatment Cannot Transmit the Virus to HIV Negative Partners

Several HIV/AIDS advocacy groups and scientists have expressed dismay and disbelief about the findings of a report from The Swiss AIDS Commission, based on several studies, that individuals using anti-HIV drugs cannot transmit HIV infection to their sex partners, if they have undetectable viral loads (< 40 copies/ml) for at least six months and if they remain adherent to their treatment regimens.

Insulin Resistance and Liver Injury in Patients with Hepatitis C Are Not Associated with Virus-Specific Changes in Adipocytokines

There is a growing body of evidence linking hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with metabolic abnormalities including type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the role of adipocytokines in HCV-associated insulin resistance is not yet clear.

Atazanavir (Reyataz) Label Changes Cover Drug Interactions, Kidney Impairment

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration this week announced revisions to the package insert for the protease inhibitor atazanavir (Reyataz), reflecting new information about administration with food, interaction with several drugs, and use by patients with impaired kidney function.

Adult Circumcision Reduces Men's Risk of HIV Infection

Adult male circumcision is emerging as a potentially important public health measure for reducing the risk of HIV transmission to men during heterosexual sex. A previous study in South Africa showed that elective circumcision reduced men's HIV infection rate by 61% (Auvert et al 2005).