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Latino HIV Patients Starting Antiretroviral Therapy Are Most Likely, and Blacks Are Least Likely, to Develop Lipodystrophy

Body shape changes and metabolic abnormalities -- collectively known as lipodystrophy syndrome -- is common in people with HIV, but it is not yet fully understood whether this is an effect of HIV infection itself, a side effect of antiretroviral therapy, or due to some combination of factors. It is also unclear whether race/ethnicity influences lipodystrophy among HIV positive patients, though it is recognized that metabolic disorders such as diabetes are more common among certain groups in the general HIV negative population.

Gilead Plans Clinical Trial of 4-in-1 Antiretroviral Combination Pill Containing Experimental Integrase Inhibitor Elvitegravir

The development of combination pills containing 2 or more antiretroviral drugs has reduced the "pill burden" and improved the convenience of HIV treatment. As reported last week by the Bloomberg financial news serviceGilead is now planning studies of a new all-in-one "quad" antiretroviral pill containing the NRTIs tenofovir and emtricitabine (the same ones in Atripla and Truvada) plus the company's experimental integrase inhibitor elvitegravir and a boosting agent, making it the first-ever 4-drug antiretroviral coformulation.

Study Shows High Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Cardiovascular Risk in Older HIV Patients

Metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease are a growing concern for HIV positive people, but there is a lack of specific data about patients older than 50 years of age, who now account for some 25% of all HIV cases in the U.S. As described in the December 1, 2008 issue of AIDS Patient Care and STDs, Oluwatoyin Adeyemi and colleagues conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic syndrome among a cohort of older HIV-infected patients, as well as their 10-year Framingham cardiac risk scores.

Zoledronate Improves Bone Loss in People with HIV

Research indicates that people with HIV are more susceptible to bone loss -- osteopenia or the more severe osteoporosis -- compared with HIV negative individuals. Some studies have reported rates as high as 50%-70%, but it is not yet clear whether this is due to HIV infection itself, immune dysfunction, systemic inflammation, antiretroviral therapy, or some combination of factors.

20-year Trends in Cancer Incidence among People with HIV and the Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy

As people with HIV live longer due to effective antiretroviral therapy, a growing proportion of illness and death in this population is attributable to causes other than classic AIDS-defining or opportunistic illnesses -- although accumulating evidence suggests that some of these causes may not really be "non-HIV-related."

A Review of HIV Monotherapy with Ritonavir-boosted Protease Inhibitors

There is increasing interest in the simplification of combination antiretroviral therapy in order to lower pill burden, improve convenience, and reduce the costs of HIV treatment.

HIV9: More Data Demonstrate Similar Efficacy of Abacavir and Tenofovir

As previously reported, ACTG study 5202 was partially halted this past March after interim results showed that among treatment-naive patients with a high baseline HIV viral load (> 100,000 copies/mL), abacavir/lamivudine (the drugs in the Epzicom coformulation pill) did not suppress HIV as well as tenofovir/emtricitabine (the drugs in the Truvada pill) when both were used in combination with either efavirenz (Sustiva) or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (Reyataz). Four cohort studies presented at the recent 9th International Congress on Drug Therapy in HIV Infection in Glasgow provided further evidence regarding the relative efficacy of the abacavir/lamivudine and tenofovir/emtricitabine backbones.