Electron Microscopy Provides Detailed Look at HIV in Gut Tissue

Imaging of active HIV infection of cells in gut tissue using 3-dimensional electron microscopy showed that the virus behaves differently in cultured cells and tissue infection models, providing new information about how HIV spreads within lymphoid tissue, according to a report in the January 30, 2014, edition of PLoS Pathogens.


Low Drug Levels in Lymphatic Tissue May Underlie Low HIV Viral Load

HIV continues to replicate in the lymph nodes of people taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) that suppresses viral load in peripheral blood, according to a small study in the January 27 early online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Several commonly used antiretroviral drugs reached lower concentrations in lymphatic tissue compared with blood, allowing ongoing virus production that may contribute to increased inflammation and immune activation in people with apparently well-controlled HIV.


Low CD4 Count Raises Risk of Heart Attack, Bone Loss

HIV positive people whose CD4 T-cell count falls below 200 cells/mm3 are at greater risk for myocardial infarction, though the heart attack rate is not elevated for people with counts of 500 cells/mm3 or more, researchers recently reported. Another study found that people with low CD4 counts have a higher likelihood of bone loss after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART).


Crofelemer Improves Diarrhea in People with HIV

Crofelemer (brand name Fulyzaq) was well-tolerated and significantly reduced non-infectious diarrhea among HIV positive people taking antiretroviral drugs, according to a study published in the November-December 2013 issue of HIV Clinical Trials.


Dolutegravir for HIV and Sofosbuvir for Hepatitis C Approved in Europe

The European Commission this week approved 2 important new drugs, ViiV Healthcare's HIV integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (brand name Tivicay) and Gilead Science's nucleotide hepatitis C virus polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir (Sovaldi).


Highlights from 2013 ICAAC, IDWeek, and EACS Meetings

Latest Positive Pulse Newsletter

In this overview Paul Sax from Harvard Medical School and Mark Sulkowski from Johns Hopkins discuss selected highlights from this fall's Interscience Conference on Microbial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), IDWeek, and the European AIDS Conference. The newsletter is available to all for free, with continuing medical education (CME) credit available for physicians and nurses.alt

CD4 T Memory Stem Cells Act as HIV Reservoir

A specific type of long-lived CD4 T-cells known as T memory stem cells continue to harbor high levels of HIV DNA despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy, and may constitute one of the main reservoirs that make the virus so difficult to eradicate, according to a reports in the January 12, 2014, online edition of Nature Medicine.