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AIDS 2014: Australian Bone Marrow Transplant Patients Show No Detectable HIV

An additional 2 people with long-term HIV infection have no evidence of infectious virus or viral genetic material following bone marrow stem cell transplants to treat leukemia or lymphoma, researchers reported at the 20th International AIDS Conference last month in Melbourne. While these individuals remain on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and therefore cannot be considered functionally cured, they offer further evidence that HIV may be controlled off ART in some cases.

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Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies May Prevent Reservoir HIV from Entering T-Cells

HIV-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies may be able to prevent virus emerging from latent reservoir sites from entering CD4 T-cells, as well as suppressing viral replication if HIV does manage to get in, according to NIAID research published in the August 25 advance edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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AIDS 2014: Criminalization Decreases HIV Prevention and Treatment Among Gay Men [VIDEO]

Gay and bisexual men who have been arrested or persecuted for same-sex activity are less likely to access HIV prevention services, and those who are HIV positive are less likely to receive antiretroviral treatment, according to a study presented at the 20th International AIDS Conference last month in Melbourne.

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AIDS 2014: Only Half of People Who Start HIV Post-exposure Prophylaxis Complete the Course

There are significant losses at each step of the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) "treatment cascade," according to a systematic review and meta-analysis of 97 studies presented to the 20th International AIDS Conference last month in Melbourne. The problems with uptake, adherence, and completion point to a need for a simplified approach, researchers said.

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AIDS 2014: Worldwide Adolescent AIDS Deaths Rising, Especially Among Boys

While new HIV infections have declined among children, adolescents, and adults since 2000, HIV-related deaths have risen sharply among adolescents, especially 15- to 19-year-old males, Tyler Porth of UNICEF reported at the 20th International AIDS Conference last month in Melbourne.

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AIDS 2014: Novel Techniques Probed in HIV Cure Research

A pair of presentations at the 20th International AIDS Conference in Melbourne described new pathways being explored in the search for either a permanent cure for HIV or for longer-acting drugs. In one study, 2 artificial genes that cause cells to generate antiviral entry inhibitors produced significant inhibition of cellular infection. In the other, a technique that is the exact opposite of the much-explored "kick and kill" strategy (which uses drugs to activate cells latently infected with HIV) used an artificial gene fragment to maintain latently infected cells in a locked-down state that resisted strong immune stimulation.

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AIDS 2014: Global ART Demand Projected to Reach 16.8 Million by 2016

The projected demand for antiretroviral therapy (ART) will increase to 16.8 million person-years by the end of 2016 in low- and middle-income countries, including 15.7 million person-years of adult and 1.1 million person-years of pediatric formulations, according to a study presented on behalf of the global ARV Forecasting Technical Working Group at the 20th International AIDS Conference(AIDS 2014) last month in Melbourne.

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AIDS 2014: Female Condoms for HIV Prevention [VIDEO]

While biomedical HIV prevention was a key theme of the recent 20th International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, other approaches remain important including wider access to internal or female condoms. Designed to be worn inside the body, female condoms can give women more control in protecting themselves against HIV.

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AIDS 2014: HIV Prevention for Gay Men Differs Between San Francisco and London

A study presented at the 20th International AIDS Conference last month in Melbourne compared HIV epidemics among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco and London, confirming that while HIV incidence in San Francisco was falling, it was static and even rising in London. HIV is increasing among gay men in London because of a lack of testing, the research suggests, while testing is enabling more disclosure and effective serosorting in San Francisco.

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AIDS 2014: Single-tablet HIV Regimens Not Necessarily More Durable

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens consisting of 1 pill taken once-daily -- known as single-tablet regimens -- were not associated with a longer time to treatment discontinuation when compared to some other modern, well-tolerated regimens that involve more pills or twice-daily dosing, according to a study presented at the 20th International AIDS Conference last month in Melbourne.

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AIDS 2014: Increased ART for Mothers Does Not Guarantee Optimal Care for Infants

The significant increase in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant women living with HIV in Malawi after implementation of Option B+ contrasts with low coverage of early diagnosis and uptake of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-exposed infants, Priscilla Idele of UNICEF reported at the 20th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2014) last month in Melbourne.

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Gut Microorganisms May Play a Role in HIV Response

Antibodies in people with HIV that target the virus's gp41 envelope protein can cross-react with normal intestinal bacteria, helping to explain why these antibodies are not effective in controlling HIV infection, according to research published in the August 13 edition of Cell Host & Microbe.

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AIDS 2014: What Is Needed to "Step Up the Pace" on HIV Prevention and Treatment?

"Stepping up the pace" -- the theme of AIDS 2014 -- will require a new focus on key populations and geographical concentrations of HIV, as well as intensified efforts to expand coverage of HIV testing and treatment, according to Prof. Salim Abdool Karim, director of CAPRISA, who reviewed the global state of the epidemic and treatment access at the 20th International AIDS Conference held recently in Melbourne.

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AIDS 2014: Circumcised Men and Female Partners Have Lower Syphilis Rates

A study presented today at the 20th International AIDS Conference in Melbourne found positive associations between voluntary medical male circumcision and reduced incidence of syphilis, not just among men, but also among their female partners. Another study found no evidence of risk compensation among men post-circumcision, while a third used a novel food-voucher scheme as an incentive for getting older men to come forward for circumcision.

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AIDS 2014: Studies Show Need for Scaled-up HIV Prevention for Sex Workers

Presentations at a session on HIV prevention strategies for sex workers, which took place at the 20th International AIDS Conference last month in Melbourne, showed that while consistent condom use is generally high among female sex workers, other barriers remain to effective prevention of HIV transmission and to care for those who are HIV positive.

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AIDS 2014: Mothers Starting Option B+ ART in Malawi Often Lost from Care

Although Malawi’s policy of offering lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) to women with HIV who are pregnant or breastfeeding resulted in a 7-fold increase in women receiving treatment in 15 months, implementers are concerned by high rates of loss to follow-up, researchers reported at the 20th International AIDS Conference in Melbourne.

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AIDS 2014: COPD Is Common Among People with HIV Even At High CD4 Counts

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not uncommon among HIV positive adults with CD4 counts above 500 cells/mm3 -- that is, even fairly early in the course of infection -- according to the first findings from a pulmonary substudy of the large international Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial, presented At the 20th International AIDS Conference last month in Melbourne. Among the nearly 1000 participants with good quality spirometry (pulmonary function) tests, the overall COPD prevalence was 6.8%, but there was considerable variation across regions.

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FDA Approves ViiV Single-Tablet Regimen Containing Dolutegravir

ViiV Healthcare announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved its all-in-1 antiretroviral fixed-dose combination pill containing the HIV integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (Tivicay) plus abacavir and lamivudine (the drugs in Epzicom or Kivexa). The new coformulation -- with the brand name Triumeq -- is the first single-tablet regimen that does not contain tenofovir and emtricitabine, making it an option for people with impaired kidney function. HLA-B*5701 genetic screening should be done prior to starting Triumeq to test for abacavir hypersensitivity.

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AIDS 2014: People with HIV -- Not Victims But Partners [VIDEO]

Recalling the Denver Principles -- the 1983 declaration of the self-empowerment of people with HIV/AIDS -- John Manwaring, a young gay man living with HIV, spoke at the 20th International AIDS Conference last month in Melbourne about the need for HIV positive people to be full partners in efforts to expand HIV awareness, prevention, and treatment.

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AIDS 2014: Disappointing HIV Cure News Leads to New Questions

The fourth IAS Towards an HIV Cure symposium -- an initiative of the International AIDS Society -- took place July 19-20, prior to the 20th International AIDS Conference in Melbourne.

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AIDS 2014 HIV Treatment and Prevention Highlights [VIDEO]

Cal Cohen of the Community Research Initiative of New England sat down with HIVandHepstitis.com to offer his summary of some of the highlights of HIV treatment and prevention research presented at the 20th International AIDS Conference last month in Melbourne, Australia.

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