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Other Infections

Growing Threat of Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea in the U.S. and Worldwide

Public health officials in Hawaii have identified the first cluster of gonorrhea cases with reduced susceptibility to both drugs in the current recommended regimen, according to a report at the 2016 STD Prevention Conference taking place this week in Atlanta. While all 7 patients were successfully treated, this cluster underscores the need for new therapies, one of which was presented at the conference.

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United Nations Assembly Addresses Growing Threat of Antibiotic Resistance

The United Nations General Assembly this week held a high-level meeting on antimicrobial resistance and passed a declaration calling on countries to do more to prevent, diagnose, and treat antibiotic-resistant infections. But participants stopped short of setting specific targets to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use or committing resources to address the growing problem.

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AIDS 2016: Does Detectable CMV Signal High Mortality Risk for Older People with HIV and TB?

A study conducted in a cohort of hospitalized adults with HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) in Khayelitsha found that having a detectable cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load was associated with higher mortality within the first 12 weeks on TB treatment, according to Amy Ward from the University of Cape Town, who presented the findings at the 21st International AIDS Conference last month in Durban.

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Experimental Vaccines Demonstrate Protection Against Zika Virus in Monkey Studies

Three different approaches using an inactivated virus vaccine, a DNA-based vaccine, and an adenovirus vector vaccine stimulated antibody production and provided complete protection against Zika virus infection in exposed rhesus monkeys, according to research published in the August 4 online edition of Science.

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AIDS 2016: Training Community Health Workers Leads to Surge in TB Diagnoses in Malawi

An intervention using community health workers -- who normally provide case management support for HIV-positive pregnant women and their families -- to also provide intensified tuberculosis (TB) case finding was associated with a dramatic 20-fold increase in TB detection at a very busy antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic in rural Malawi, according to a study presented at the 21st International AIDS Conference last week in Durban.

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AIDS 2016: New WHO Algorithm Aims to Prevent TB Deaths in People with Advanced HIV

The World Health Organization (WHO) has released a new diagnostic algorithm to reduce the likelihood of seriously ill people with HIV dying of undiagnosed and untreated tuberculosis (TB). The algorithm was presented at a scientific workshop at the 21st International AIDS Conference last month in Durban.

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AIDS 2016: TB 2016 Demands a Global Commitment to End Tuberculosis

While much of the TB 2016 meeting, held ahead of the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) in Durban, was devoted to the rapidly evolving science in the fight against tuberculosis (TB), the meeting also highlighted the failure of the world, including the international HIV community, to adequately respond to the TB epidemic -- which last year surpassed HIV as the leading infectious cause of death in the world.

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AIDS 2016: High-Dose Rifampicin for TB May Improve Survival of HIV+ People with Low CD4 Counts

More aggressive tuberculosis (TB) treatment using a high dose of rifampicin, in addition to antiretroviral therapy (ART), could reduce mortality among people with HIV/TB coinfection who are severely immunocompromised, according to results from the 3-arm RAFA trial presented at the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) last month in Durban.

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AIDS 2016: Shortened Regimen for MDR-TB Shows Good Results for Children

The use of a shortened 9-month treatment regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), known as the "Bangladesh regimen," was shown to be successful in 83% of children and adolescents diagnosed with rifampicin-resistant TB, researchers reported at the TB 2016 meeting, held ahead of the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) this week in Durban. A second study presented at the meeting showed that the antibiotic levofloxacin can be used to treat MDR-TB in children.

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