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Other Infections

EASL 2017: Norfloxacin Reduces Risk of Death for People with Decompensated Cirrhosis

Long-term prophylaxis with the antibiotic norfloxacin significantly reduced the incidence of death in people with decompensated cirrhosis over a 6-month follow-up period, according to a French randomized trial reported at the EASL International Liver Congress this week in Amsterdam.

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CROI 2017: Prednisone Reduces Risk of Developing TB-IRIS after Starting Antiretroviral Treatment

Prednisone reduces the risk of immune restoration inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in people with HIV after starting tuberculosis (TB) treatment, a randomized trial called PredART has found. The results were presented last month at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Seattle by Graeme Meintjes from the University of Cape Town in South Africa.

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27 Million People in U.S. Use Illicit Drugs, Harm Reduction Not Keeping Pace

Nearly 21 million people in the United States struggle with substance use disorders, according to a new report, Facing Addiction in America: Surgeon General's Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health, released this week. Another new report by Harm Reduction International finds that harm reduction services are not adequate in the U.S. or worldwide, though the U.S. has seen some recent improvements.

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CROI 2017: Isoniazid Preventive Therapy for TB Reduces Risk of Death for People Living with HIV

A 6-month course of isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) for at the beginning of the Temprano trial in Ivory Coast reduced the risk of death by 37% over a mean follow-up period of 4.5 years, Anani Badje reported at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections this month in Seattle.

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AASLD 2016: When You Eat May Contribute to Fatty Liver Disease as Much as What You Eat

People who skip breakfast and eat late at night may have an elevated risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), according to research presented at the AASLD Liver Meeting this week in Boston. This suggests that meal timing and frequency of meals may be modifiable risk factors for fatty liver disease, which can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.

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CROI 2017: Triple Tuberculosis Regimen Beats XDR-TB in First Trial

A regimen of three oral drugs given for 6 months was enough to clear extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in 29 of the first 31 people to have completed the treatment course, Francesca Conradie of Sizwe Tropical Disease Hospital in Johannesburg reported at the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections last week in Seattle. If the results are replicated in a larger population, the findings could revolutionize the prospects for treating not just XDR-TB, but also more severe cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

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Young Adolescents Need Only 2 Doses of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine, CDC Says

Adolescents age 11-14 years can receive 2 doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to prevent cancers caused by HPV, rather than the 3 doses previously recommended, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This change is supported by a systematic review presented at the recent IDWeek meeting in New Orleans, which found that 2 vaccine doses were non-inferior to 3 doses for this age group.

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10. Not Enough Syringe Programs for People Who Inject Drugs

The opioid epidemic in the U.S. -- with its attendant risk of overdose and HIV and viral hepatitis transmission -- remained a concern in 2016, with new data showing that many people who inject drugs do not have consistent access to sterile syringes.

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IDWeek 2016: Rapid Emergence of Drug-Resistant Gonorrhea Seen in Ohio

Routine surveillance in southern Ohio has detected a steep increase in gonorrhea showing resistance to ciprofloxacin or reduced susceptibility to azithromycin, according to a presentation at IDWeek last week in New Orleans. Azithromycin is one of the 2 drugs in the sole recommended gonorrhea treatment regimen in the U.S., but no resistance to ceftriaxone, the other drug in that regimen, was seen.

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