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Screening for Bone Fracture Risk Should Be Routine for HIV+ People over 40

Screening for fracture risk should be a routine part of HIV care for all people over 40, and all postmenopausal women, all men over 50, and people at high risk for fractures of any age should undergo DEXA screening (a type of X-ray) to assess bone mineral density and their need for treatment, experts on bone disorders recommend in new guidelines published in the January 21 online edition of Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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HIV May Cause Cognitive Impairment by Disrupting Brain's Garbage Disposal

HIV's Tat protein interferes with autophagy, a process by which damaged or unneeded cell components are broken down and eliminated, according to research published in the February 4 Journal of Neuroscience. This disruption can lead to neuron damage, but the immunosuppressant drug rapamycin was able to reverse this process in a study of mice.

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People with HIV May Experience Low- and High-Frequency Hearing Loss

People living with HIV were found to have impairment in both low-frequency and high-frequency hearing, but no association was seen with disease variables such as CD4 T-cell count or type of antiretroviral treatment, according to a recently published study.

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HIV Rebound Linked to Liver Fibrosis Progression in HIV/HCV Coinfected

HIV-positive people with hepatitis C virus (HCV) experienced progression to liver fibrosis if their HIV viral load rebounded above 1000 copies/mL or remained detectable on 2 consecutive tests, researchers reported in the January edition of HIV Medicine. Smaller transient HIV "blips," however, were not associated with worsening fibrosis. Optimized antiretroviral therapy, the study authors suggested, may protect the liver.

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IDWeek 2014: Acute Retroviral Syndrome Linked to Higher HIV Levels in Blood, Gut and Brain

People with acute or very recent HIV infection who experience the flu-like symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome (ARS) have higher levels of HIV RNA and proviral DNA in their blood, colon, and brain tissue, indicating more active viral replication, as well as higher levels of certain inflammatory biomarkers researchers reported at IDWeek 2014 this month in Philadelphia.

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Kaiser Study Shows No Elevated Heart Attack Risk for People with HIV

A previously reported increase in the risk of myocardial infarction or heart attack among people living with HIV has been reversed in recent years, according to an analysis of nearly 25,000 Kaiser Permanent members published in the January 18 edition of Clinical Infectious Diseases. In 2010-2011, HIV positive patients were at no greater risk than HIV negative people.

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HIVMA Issues Guidelines for Managing Chronic Kidney Disease in People with HIV

The HIV Medical Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has released updated recommendations for HIV positive people with chronic kidney disease. The guidelines, published in the September 17 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, state that antiretroviral therapy (ART) is beneficial for such patients, but they should avoid tenofovir (Viread, also in the Truvada, Atripla, Complera, and Stribild coformulations), which can cause kidney impairment.

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Low CD4 Count, Suboptimal HIV Treatment Linked to Higher Anal Cancer Risk

People with HIV who experienced extensive immune deficiency or who used early antiretroviral drugs before the advent of combination highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid-90s may be at greater risk for developing anal cancer, according to a retrospective analysis published in the January 28 edition of AIDS.

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ICAAC 2014: New Drug Isavuconazole Is Effective Against Opportunistic Fungal Infections

A new antifungal drug, isavuconazole, matched the efficacy of voriconazole for treatment of invasive fungal infections in cancer patients with compromised immunity, but with fewer side effects, researchers reported at the 54th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy last week in Washington, DC.Isavuconazole was shown to be effective against various fungal infections that act as opportunistic illnesses in people with HIV/AIDS, including Aspergillus, Candida, and Cryptococcus.

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