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HIV Medicine Association Guidelines Emphasize Primary Care Needs of People with HIV on ART

The HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) this week released new Primary Care Guidelines for the Management of Persons Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, focusing on primary care and prevention for HIV positive people on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The new guidelines, published in the November 13, 2013, online edition of Clinical Infectious Diseases (in print January 2014) "reflect the fact that people with HIV are now living normal life spans," according to an HIVMA/IDSA press release.

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Updated Pediatric HIV Opportunistic Infection Guidelines Emphasize Antiretroviral Therapy

The U.S. National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other medical associations have released an updated version of Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children. The latest revision emphasizes the importance of timely antiretroviral therapy as a key to preventing and managing OIs in infants and children with HIV.

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CDC Report: Antibiotic Drug Resistance Is a Growing Threat

Bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics is a growing problem, affecting at least 2 million people each year in the U.S. and resulting in at least 23,000 deaths, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is available free online. The consequences of inaction, according to the report, are "potentially catastrophic."

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EACS 2013: Suicide Rates and Psychiatric Drug Use Among People with HIV

A study presented at the recent 14th European AIDS Conference found that the suicide rate among people with HIV in British Columbia had fallen 35-fold since 1996 and was now close to that of the general population. However, a second study from Denmark found rates of psychiatric drug use, especially sleeping pills and tranquilizers, to be 2-3 times higher among people with HIV than in the general population, and saw a marked rise in the use of antipsychotic drugs 7 or 8 years after diagnosis.

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ICAAC 2013: Risk Factors and Screening for HPV Anal Dysplasia

About two-thirds of gay men and one-fifth of women tested in Spain were found to have abnormalities that could progress to anal cancer, and both groups would benefit from more widespread and accurate testing, researchers reported at the 53rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC 2013) this month in Denver. The men's study found that human papillomavirus (HPV) type 39 was a key risk factor.

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HPV can trigger abnormal cell growth ranging from warts to cancer. Certain high-risk or oncogenic types, including HPV-16 and HPV-18, cause anal, cervical, and other genital cancers. These typically begin as low-grade dysplasia (also known as squamous intraepithelial lesions or intraepithelial neoplasia) and can progress to high-grade lesions and then carcinoma if not treated. Lower-risk types including HPV-6 and HPV-11 cause genital warts. However, high-risk types do not always cause dysplasia, low-grade neoplasia does always progress to high-grade lesions or cancer, and lesions may regress on their own without treatment.

Anal cancer is more common among people with HIV than it is in the general population, and prevalence is especially high among men who have sex with men (MSM). Although cervical cancer is considered an AIDS-defining malignancy, anal cancer is not so classified. Regular cervical Pap tests are recommended for both HIV positive and negative women to catch abnormalities at an early stage, but clinical practices for screening, preventing, and treating anal cancer vary widely.

Carmen Hidalgo from Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves in Granada, Spain, and colleagues reported findings from studies looking at HPV infection, anal dysplasia, and predictive factors in men and women with HIV.

Men Who Have Sex With Men

The men's study, presented at an oral session, looked at prevalence of and risk factors for high-grade or stage 2-3 anal intraepithelialneoplasia (AIN) or anal cancer (carcinoma in situ) among HIV positive MSM. The researchers assessed the accuracy of HPV PCR testing for more than a dozen high-risk and low-risk types, cytology (testing for cell abnormalities, as done with a Pap smear), and anoscopy (examination of anal-rectal tissue with a magnifying device). They also compared anoscope-guided cytology vs cytology samples taken with swab.

The analysis included 103 participants in a prospective cohort study that screened HIV positive MSM for anal dysplasia from April 2010 through September 2012 using all 3 methods.

The average age was 36 years and the mean and nadir (lowest-ever) CD4 T-cell counts were 645 and 387 cells/mm3, respectively, indicating well-preserved immune function. Most (85%) used antiretroviral therapy (ART). Half were smokers -- a know risk factors for HPV-related cancer -- and about 40% had anal warts. All the men reported anal sex, they had a median of 1.5 sexual partners during the study, and 70% said they used condoms.

Results

  • Overall, the researchers found that one-third to one-half of the men had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) or stage 1 AIN, and around 5% to 10% had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) or stage 2-3 AIN, depending on the method used:

o   Anal cytology using swab:

*  LSIL: 53%;

*  HSIL: 5%;

*  Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS): 5%;

*  Normal: 33%.

o   Anoscopy (histology):

*  AIN 1: 44%;

*  AIN 2-3: 10%;

*  Carcinoma in situ: 11%;

*  Normal: 36%.

o   Cytology with anoscope:

*  LSIL: 36;

*  HSIL: 7%;

*  ASCUS: 6%;

*  Normal: 50%.

  • In a univariate analysis looking at separate risk factors, older age and infection with HPV types 6, 39, or 42 predicted high-grade AIN or anal cancer.
  • In a multivariate analysis, however, HPV-36 was the only independent risk factor to reach statistical significance, conferring more than a 10-fold higher risk (odds ratio 10.51).
  • Neither smoking nor CD4 count were associated with greater risk in this study, in which CD4 cells were uniformly high.
  • For each testing method, the researchers calculated sensitivity (ability to detect true cases), specificity (ability to rule out if not present), positive predictive value (PPV, or proportion of correct positive diagnoses), and negative predictive value (NPV, or proportion of correct negative diagnoses):

o   Anal swab cytology: 94%, 42%, 31%, and 97%, respectively;

o   Cytology with anoscope: 90%, 61%, 40%, and 96%, respectively;

o   High-risk HPV testing: 83%, 15%, 24%, and 77%, respectively;

o   Anal swab cytology and high-risk HPV: 79%, 41%, 28%, and 88%, respectively;

o   Anal swab cytology and/or high-risk HPV: 100%, 15%, 24%, and 100%, respectively.

"In our HIV positive MSM cohort, the association of the oncogenic HPV genotype 39 with other [high risk] HPV genotypes was the main risk factor associated with high-grade AIN and/or carcinoma in situ," the researchers concluded.

With regard to testing methods, anoscopy-guided cytology does not improve the diagnosis of dysplasia, and "for this reason, we do not think that it should be included in the screening protocol."

HIV positive MSM "should be systematically tested for dysplastic lesions with anal cytology and HPV PCR," they summarized.

If cytology is abnormal, irrespective of the grade of dysplasia, histological evaluation of the lesion should be performed using anoscopy, they added. But if cytology is normal, HPV PCR screening should be done, and if high-risk HPV is found, the patient should also be referred for anoscopy.

Asked if anal screening could be done less often after a series of negative tests -- as is the case for HIV negative women undergoing cervical screening -- Hidalgo Tenorio said she recommends ongoing screening every year for this population.

Session moderator Judith Aberg asked about the unexpectedly high rate of HPV-39, speculating whether widespread vaccination against HPV types 16 and 18 might allow other types to take over as major causes of cancer. Hidalgo Tenorio did not have an answer, but to date HPV vaccines have mostly been given to young women, and more recently young men, so coverage is likely still low in this population. She noted that new vaccines are under study that will protect against more HPV types than current vaccines.

Women with HIV

Hidalgo Tenorio's team also presented a poster looking at the prevalence of and risk factors for anal dysplasia among a cohort of women in southern Spain, comparing rates to those of men who have sex with men.

While cervical abnormalities are a known risk for women with HIV, anal dysplasia may be equally or more common, though it is not regularly screened for. The researchers noted that HIV positive women have a 14-fold higher risk of anal neoplasia than HIV negative women.

This cross-sectional analysis looked at HIV positive women and MSM receiving medical care at a single center in southern Spain between December 2008 and December 2012. The men were the same group described above.

The 45 women were a bit older, with an average age of 43 years. Mean and nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 692 and 223 cells/mm3, respectively, and most (93%) were taking ART. A majority (71%) were smokers, 22% had anal warts, and 27% were coinfected with hepatitis C (compared with only 4% of the men). They reported a median of 1 sexual partner during the study, 53% said they used condoms, and only 22% reported anal sex.

Results

  • 23% of the women had low-risk HPV types and 34% had high-risk types, compared with 71% and 85%, respectively, among the men.
  • Looking at high-risk types among women, 5% had HPV-16, 5% had HPV-18, 9% had HPV-51, and 2% had HPV-53; for men, the corresponding prevalence rates were 27%, 17%, 18%, and 15%, respectively.
  • More than three-quarters of the women (79%) had normal cytology by anal swabs, compared with one-third of the men.
  • 8 women (19%) had LSIL, none had HSIL, and 1 (2%) had ASCUS.
  • In a univariate analysis, significant risk factors for anal dysplasia were presence of either low-risk of high-risk HPV types, with HIV viral load and CD4 count being of borderline significance.
  • In a multivariate analysis, however, presence of anal or genital warts was the only independent risk factor (OR 11.5)

Rates of dysplasia and anal HPV infection in this cohort of HIV positive women were significantly lower than those of HIV positive MSM, but even they are high enough to justify screening regardless of virological or immunological status, the researchers concluded.

They did not answer the question put forth in their title -- whether anal dysplasia among people with HIV is a matter of sexual behavior or gender -- but HPV is sexually transmitted, and the women in this study were much less likely than the gay men to have had anal sex.

9/22/13

References

C Hidalgo Tenorio, M Rivero Rodriguez, C Gil Anguita, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) and anal cancer in an HIV MSM Spanish Cohort. 53rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC 2013). Denver, September 10-13, 2013. Abstract H-1532.

C Hidalgo Tenorio, M Rivero Rodriguez, C Gil, et al. Is HPV anal dysplasia in HIV patients a matter of sexual behaviour or gender?
53rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC 2013). Denver, September 10-13, 2013. Abstract H-1270.

EACS 2013: Anal Cancer Screening May Be Appropriate for All Women with HIV

Women living with HIV had a higher risk of anal pre-cancerous changes than cervical changes linked to human papillomavirus (HPV), French researchers reported at the 14th European AIDS Conference this week in Brussels. They suggested that all women with HIV ought to be screened routinely for pre-cancerous changes in the anal canal.

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ICAAC 2013: Switching from Atripla to Complera Reduces Central Nervous System Side Effects

People who switched single-tablet regimens from Atripla (efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine) to Complera (rilpivirine/tenofovir/emtricitabine) maintained viral load suppression and saw improvement in central nervous system (CNS) side effects such as abnormal dreams and depression, according to a late-breaking poster presented at the 53rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) this month in Denver. Other studies looked at the safety and efficacy of Complera among women and black patients.

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IDWeek 2013: HIV+ People Not on Antiretrovirals Are Prone to Inflammation-related Bone Loss

HIV positive people not taking antiretroviral therapy experienced more bone mineral density (BMD) loss at the hip and were somewhat more likely to develop osteopenia or osteoporosis than HIV negative individuals, researchers reported at the second IDWeek conference held recently in San Francisco. They also found that bone loss among people with HIV appeared to be linked to inflammation.

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ICAAC 2013: Depression Linked to Detectable HIV in Cerebrospinal Fluid

People who experience episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) are significantly more likely to have detectable HIV in their cerebral-spinal fluid (CSF), according to an analysis of the large CHARTER study presented as a late-breaker poster at the 53rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC 2013) last week in Denver.

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