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HIV May Damage Gut and Trigger Inflammation Within Days of Infection

An HIV-like simian virus disrupted the gut lining within 3 days after infection, due to an inflammatory response initiated by Paneth cells that produce interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), according to a report in the August 28 issue of PLoS Pathogens. Certain beneficial gut bacteria, however, appeared to reduce the damage.

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Counseling Helps Improve PrEP Adherence Among Serodiscordant Couples

Cognitive-behavioral counseling sessions significantly increased the likelihood of consistently taking pills among participants with faltering adherence in an African trial of Truvada pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for serodiscordant (mixed HIV status) heterosexual couples, according to a report in the August 15 Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.

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AIDS 2014: Australian Bone Marrow Transplant Patients Show No Detectable HIV

An additional 2 people with long-term HIV infection have no evidence of infectious virus or viral genetic material following bone marrow stem cell transplants to treat leukemia or lymphoma, researchers reported at the 20th International AIDS Conference last month in Melbourne. While these individuals remain on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and therefore cannot be considered functionally cured, they offer further evidence that HIV may be controlled off ART in some cases.

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Hepatitis C Infections Fall after Harm Reduction Scale-up in Scotland

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence among people who inject drugs declined rapidly after national scale-up of harm reduction interventions such as syringe exchange in Scotland, according to a report published in the August 11 edition of PLoS ONE. Changes in HCV prevalence, however, are lagging behind.

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Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies May Prevent Reservoir HIV from Entering T-Cells

HIV-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies may be able to prevent virus emerging from latent reservoir sites from entering CD4 T-cells, as well as suppressing viral replication if HIV does manage to get in, according to NIAID research published in the August 25 advance edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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AIDS 2014: Low Level Viral Load Does Not Raise Risk of HIV Treatment Failure

People with HIV who have a low-level viral load between 20 and 50 copies/mL were not more likely to experience virological failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared with those who consistently maintained viral suppression below 20 copies/mL, according to research presented at the 20th International AIDS Conference in Melbourne.

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AIDS 2014: Only Half of People Who Start HIV Post-exposure Prophylaxis Complete the Course

There are significant losses at each step of the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) "treatment cascade," according to a systematic review and meta-analysis of 97 studies presented to the 20th International AIDS Conference last month in Melbourne. The problems with uptake, adherence, and completion point to a need for a simplified approach, researchers said.

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